朝鲜战争的意义

开创性的事件长期被二战和后来的越南所掩盖。

20世纪历史的转折点。

冷战中的第一次射击对抗

核时代的第一场有限战争

二战以来,世界上两个主要军事大国——美国和中国——只有一次相互交战

第一次联合国战争

外交上——双方的误判和无能。

对相关国家的深远影响:

朝鲜人:灾难性的军事和平民伤亡;中文:数十万人伤亡。

增加敌意加深了朝韩之间的分歧

将韩国从共产主义统治下拯救出来

向冷战国家安全状态的重要过渡。

战争爆发前,美国已经解除了武装,可悲的是,美国甚至没有准备好在朝鲜半岛打一场有限的战争

国家重整军备的强大因素。NSC-68获得通过。很快国防预算翻了两番。

国内:

在国内,战争加速了军队的种族融合,这反过来又加速了民权运动

这也强化了美国国内对左派的态度,并鼓励麦卡锡主义。

外交上:

巩固美国作为世界警察的角色

加强美国对北约和西德重整军备的承诺。

美国改变了在印度支那战争中对法国援助的立场。美国开始将共产主义胡志明及其独立运动(越南)视为“红色中国”和苏联的傀儡。美国在资金和设备方面积极支持法国。

军事上:

地面演习和僵局的两阶段性质,以及涉及中国、朝鲜和俄罗斯对美国的朝鲜天空空战..

军事创新:直升机、喷气式飞机(罗森博格间谍活动的结果是俄罗斯米格飞机)和空中力量的限制。

它说明了指挥海洋的重要性,以及伤员治疗的进展。

美国采用NSC-68,大幅增加国防开支。

投下长长的阴影:

越南战争期间,美国总统担心中国的干预。

日本的和平条约(1950年)和作为一个经济大国的崛起始于这一时期。

朝鲜战争是美国的“被遗忘的战争”朝鲜战争纪念碑直到1995年才完工。

从技术上讲,战争仍在继续,就像1953年停战协定结束了战争一样。朝鲜半岛今天非常危险。朝鲜的核问题、饥饿和经济崩溃。

资料来源:斯潘塞·塔克,“为什么研究朝鲜战争?”历史杂志:朝鲜战争(十四,第3期),3-5页。

Seminal event long overshadowed by WWII and then Vietnam.

Turning Point in 20th century history.

1st shooting confrontation of the Cold War

1st limited war in nuclear age

Only time since WWII that two of the world’s major military powers: U.S. and China fought each other

1st UN War

Diplomatically – miscalculations and ineptitude on both sides.

Profound impact on countries involved:

Korean: catastrophic military and civilian casualties; Chinese: hundreds of thousands of casualties.

Added enmity hardened division between two Koreas

Saved South Korea from Communist domination

Important transition to Cold War national security state.

Prior to the war’s outbreak, the U.S. had disarmed and was woefully unprepared to fight even a limited war on the Korean Peninsula

Powerful factor in the nation’s rearmament. NSC-68 was adopted. Soon the defense budget had quadrupled.

Domestically:

Domestically, the war accelerated the racial integration of the military which in turn accelerated the civil rights movement

It also stiffened U.S. attitudes toward perceived leftism at home and encouraged McCarthyism.

Diplomatically:

Solidified role of the U.S. as world policeman

Strengthened U.S. commitment to NATO and the rearming of West Germany.

U.S. changed its position regarding aid to the French in their war in Indochina. The U.S. came to view the Communist Ho Chi Minh and his independence movement (Viet Minh) as puppets of “Red China” and the Soviet Union. The U.S. actively backed the French in terms of money and equipment.

Militarily:

Two-phase nature of maneuver and stalemate on the ground and the air war in the Korean skies that involved Chinese, North Koreans, and Russians against the United States..

Military innovations: helicopter, jet planes (Russian MIG a result of Rosenberg spying) and limits of air power.

It illustrated the importance of command of the sea, and also advances in treatment of wounded.

The United States adopted NSC-68 that provided for huge increases in defense spending.

Cast a long shadow :

During Vietnam, American presidents worried about Chinese intervention.

Japan’s peace treaty (1950) and emergence as an economic power dated from this period.

The Korean War was America’s “forgotten war.” Korean War Memorial was not finished until 1995.

Technically war continues as was only an armistice ended the fighting in 1953. Korean Peninsula very dangerous today. Nuclear issues and starvation and economic collapse in the North.

Source: Spencer C. Tucker, “Why Study the Korean War?” Magazine of History: The Korean War (XIV, no. 3), 3-5.

Significance of the Korean War
http://claver.gprep.org/sjochs/significance_of_the_korean_war.htm

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