OPEC欧佩克历史简介

石油输出国组织(OPEC)是一个常设的政府间组织,由伊朗,伊拉克,科威特,沙特阿拉伯和委内瑞拉在1960年9月10日至14日的巴格达会议上成立。五个创始成员随后又与其他十个成员一起加入:卡塔尔(1961)–在2019年1月终止其成员资格;印度尼西亚(1962年)– 2009年1月暂停成员资格,2016年1月重新启用成员资格,但决定于2016年11月再次暂停成员资格;利比亚(1962); 阿拉伯联合酋长国(1967); 阿尔及利亚(1969); 尼日利亚(1971);厄瓜多尔(1973)– 1992年12月暂停其成员资格,但于2007年10月重新启用;安哥拉(2007); 加蓬(1975)-1995年1月终止成员资格,但于2016年7月重新加入;赤道几内亚(2017); 和刚果(2018)。欧佩克的总部设在瑞士日内瓦,在它存在的头五年。于1965年9月1日移至奥地利维也纳。

欧佩克的目标是在成员国之间协调和统一石油政策,以确保石油生产商的公平和稳定的价格;向消费国提供有效,经济和定期的石油供应;并向那些投资该行业的人提供公平的资本回报。

1960年代

欧佩克由五个产油发展中国家于1960年9月在巴格达组建,当时正值国际经济和政治格局过渡之际,该国广泛实行非殖民化,并在发展中国家诞生了许多新的独立国家。国际石油市场以“七姐妹”跨国公司为主导,并且与前苏联(FSU)和其他中央计划经济体(CPE)基本上分开。欧佩克建立了集体愿景,确立了目标并建立了秘书处,首先是在日内瓦,然后是1965年在维也纳。它于1968年通过了《成员国石油政策声明》,它强调了所有国家为了国家发展的利益而对其自然资源行使永久主权的不可剥夺的权利。到1969年,成员数量增加到10个。

1970年代

欧佩克在这十年中扬名国际,原因是其成员国控制了其国内石油工业并在世界市场上的原油定价中获得了重要发言权。1973年阿拉伯石油禁运和1979年伊朗革命爆发,在动荡的市场中,石油价格两次急剧上涨。欧佩克于1975年在阿尔及尔举行了第一次国家元首和政府首脑峰会,扩大了其任务范围,它解决了贫穷国家的困境,并呼吁国际关系合作的新时代,以期世界经济发展与稳定。这导致在1976年建立了OPEC国际发展基金。成员国开始了雄心勃勃的社会经济发展计划。到1975年,成员增加到13个。

1980年代

在十年初期达到创纪录水平之后,价格开始走弱,直到1986年大跌,这是由于石油供过于求以及消费者转向使用这种碳氢化合物所致。欧佩克在较小的石油市场中的份额大幅下降,石油总收入下降到早先峰值的三分之一以下,给许多成员国造成了严重的经济困难。价格在这十年的最后阶段回升,但达到了初期水平的一半左右,欧佩克在新增长的世界产出中所占的份额开始恢复。石油输出国组织引入了各成员国之间的集团最高产量上限和一个定价参考篮子,以及欧佩克/非欧佩克对话与合作取得的重大进展,这对市场稳定和合理的价格至关重要,这得到了支持。在国际能源议程上出现了环境问题。

1990年代

价格的波动幅度不如1970年代和1980年代,石油输出国组织的及时行动减少了1990-91年中东敌对行动的市场影响。但是十年来剧烈的波动和总体价格疲软占据了主导地位,东南亚经济下滑和北半球1998-99年冬季的温和使得价格回到了1986年的水平。但是,随着石油市场的全面整合,出现了稳固的复苏,石油市场正在适应后苏联时代的世界,更大的区域主义,全球化,通讯革命和其他高科技趋势。生产者-消费者对话的突破与欧佩克/非欧佩克关系的不断发展相吻合。随着联合国主持的气候变化谈判势头强劲,在1992年地球峰会之后,欧佩克寻求在处理石油供应方面的公平,平衡和现实主义。一个国家离开了欧佩克,

2000年代

欧佩克(OPEC)创新的油价带机制在该十年的前几年帮助加强和稳定了原油价格。但是,由于市场力量,投机活动和其他因素的共同作用,2004年的局势发生了变化,推高了价格,并在供应充足的原油市场中加剧了波动。石油越来越多地被用作资产类别。在新兴的全球金融动荡和经济衰退崩溃之前,价格在2008年中期飙升至创纪录水平。欧佩克在应对石油危机的全球努力中,在支持石油部门方面发挥了举足轻重的作用。欧佩克于2000年和2007年在加拉加斯和利雅得举行的第二届和第三届峰会确立了稳定的能源市场,可持续发展和环境为三个指导主题,并于2005年采用了一项全面的长期战略。一个国家加入了欧佩克,

2010年至今

全球经济是本世纪初石油市场面临的主要风险,因为全球宏观经济的不确定性和围绕国际金融体系的高风险给各经济体带来了压力。尽管市场保持相对平衡,但世界许多地方不断升级的社会动荡在本十年的前五年影响了供求。2011年至2014年年中,价格保持稳定,此前投机和供应过剩导致价格在2014年下跌。贸易模式继续转变,亚洲国家的需求进一步增长,经合组织的需求普遍萎缩。随着对新的联合国领导的气候变化协议的期望,世界对多边环境问题的关注开始增强。欧佩克继续寻求市场稳定,并寻求进一步加强与消费者和非欧佩克产油国的对话与合作。

The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is a permanent, intergovernmental Organization, created at the Baghdad Conference on September 10–14, 1960, by Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela. The five Founding Members were later joined by ten other Members: Qatar (1961) – terminated its membership in January 2019; Indonesia (1962) – suspended its membership in January 2009, reactivated it in January 2016, but decided to suspend it again in November 2016; Libya (1962); United Arab Emirates (1967); Algeria (1969); Nigeria (1971); Ecuador (1973) – suspended its membership in December 1992, but reactivated it in October 2007; Angola (2007); Gabon (1975) – terminated its membership in January 1995 but rejoined in July 2016; Equatorial Guinea (2017); and Congo (2018). OPEC had its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, in the first five years of its existence. This was moved to Vienna, Austria, on September 1, 1965.

OPEC’s objective is to co-ordinate and unify petroleum policies among Member Countries, in order to secure fair and stable prices for petroleum producers; an efficient, economic and regular supply of petroleum to consuming nations; and a fair return on capital to those investing in the industry.

The 1960s

OPEC’s formation by five oil-producing developing countries in Baghdad in September 1960 occurred at a time of transition in the international economic and political landscape, with extensive decolonisation and the birth of many new independent states in the developing world. The international oil market was dominated by the “Seven Sisters” multinational companies and was largely separate from that of the former Soviet Union (FSU) and other centrally planned economies (CPEs). OPEC developed its collective vision, set up its objectives and established its Secretariat, first in Geneva and then, in 1965, in Vienna. It adopted a ‘Declaratory Statement of Petroleum Policy in Member Countries’ in 1968, which emphasised the inalienable right of all countries to exercise permanent sovereignty over their natural resources in the interest of their national development. Membership grew to ten by 1969.

The 1970s

OPEC rose to international prominence during this decade, as its Member Countries took control of their domestic petroleum industries and acquired a major say in the pricing of crude oil on world markets. On two occasions, oil prices rose steeply in a volatile market, triggered by the Arab oil embargo in 1973 and the outbreak of the Iranian Revolution in 1979. OPEC broadened its mandate with the first Summit of Heads of State and Government in Algiers in 1975, which addressed the plight of the poorer nations and called for a new era of cooperation in international relations, in the interests of world economic development and stability. This led to the establishment of the OPEC Fund for International Development in 1976. Member Countries embarked on ambitious socio-economic development schemes. Membership grew to 13 by 1975.

The 1980s

After reaching record levels early in the decade, prices began to weaken, before crashing in 1986, responding to a big oil glut and consumer shift away from this hydrocarbon. OPEC’s share of the smaller oil market fell heavily and its total petroleum revenue dropped below a third of earlier peaks, causing severe economic hardship for many Member Countries. Prices rallied in the final part of the decade, but to around half the levels of the early part, and OPEC’s share of newly growing world output began to recover. This was supported by OPEC introducing a group production ceiling divided among Member Countries and a Reference Basket for pricing, as well as significant progress with OPEC/non-OPEC dialogue and cooperation, seen as essential for market stability and reasonable prices. Environmental issues emerged on the international energy agenda.

The 1990s

Prices moved less dramatically than in the 1970s and 1980s, and timely OPEC action reduced the market impact of Middle East hostilities in 1990–91. But excessive volatility and general price weakness dominated the decade, and the South-East Asian economic downturn and mild Northern Hemisphere winter of 1998–99 saw prices back at 1986 levels. However, a solid recovery followed in a more integrated oil market, which was adjusting to the post-Soviet world, greater regionalism, globalisation, the communications revolution and other high-tech trends. Breakthroughs in producer-consumer dialogue matched continued advances in OPEC/non-OPEC relations. As the United Nations-sponsored climate change negotiations gathered momentum, after the Earth Summit of 1992, OPEC sought fairness, balance and realism in the treatment of oil supply. One country left OPEC, while another suspended its Membership.

The 2000s

An innovative OPEC oil price band mechanism helped strengthen and stabilise crude prices in the early years of the decade. But a combination of market forces, speculation and other factors transformed the situation in 2004, pushing up prices and increasing volatility in a well-supplied crude market. Oil was used increasingly as an asset class. Prices soared to record levels in mid-2008, before collapsing in the emerging global financial turmoil and economic recession. OPEC became prominent in supporting the oil sector, as part of global efforts to address the economic crisis. OPEC’s second and third summits in Caracas and Riyadh in 2000 and 2007 established stable energy markets, sustainable development and the environment as three guiding themes, and it adopted a comprehensive long-term strategy in 2005. One country joined OPEC, another reactivated its Membership and a third suspended it.

2010 until now

The global economy represented the main risk to the oil market early in the decade, as global macroeconomic uncertainties and heightened risks surrounding the international financial system weighed on economies. Escalating social unrest in many parts of the world affected both supply and demand throughout the first half of the decade, although the market remained relatively balanced. Prices were stable between 2011 and mid-2014, before a combination of speculation and oversupply caused them to fall in 2014. Trade patterns continued to shift, with demand growing further in Asian countries and generally shrinking in the OECD. The world’s focus on multilateral environmental matters began to sharpen, with expectations for a new UN-led climate change agreement. OPEC continued to seek stability in the market, and looked to further enhance its dialogue and cooperation with consumers, and non-OPEC producers.

原文:https://www.opec.org/opec_web/en/about_us/24.htm

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