住在卡塔尔你需要知道什么

如果你住在密尔沃基,刚刚得到一份英语第二语言教师的工作或者卡塔尔拉凡炼油厂的化学工程师的职位,开始做你的研究。在你到达之前,了解这个有趣的阿拉伯国家的人民、文化和宗教。

国家事实和数字
首都是多哈。
货币是卡塔尔里亚尔,你可以在这里看到汇率。
卡塔尔的人口为2,169人,与休斯顿的人口差不多。大约60%的人住在多哈,剩下的40%住在小村庄。
占主导地位的宗教是逊尼派穆斯林,占77.5%。基督徒是第二大群体,占8.5%。第三大宗教是什叶派穆斯林,仅占4%,其余10%被归类为其他宗教。
国内生产总值为93,714美元。

如果你打算搬到卡塔尔出差,一定要事先掌握商务礼仪。阅读卡塔尔生活的方方面面是很重要的。即便如此,还是要为文化冲击做好准备。
文化冲击的迹象和症状因人而异。要注意的迹象包括对当地习俗、传统和做事方式的批评、渴望回家、睡得太多和无聊。

1.生活费用
从生活成本开始。卡塔尔的一些东西会便宜得多,而另一些会更贵。例如,在美国,一居室公寓的平均月租金约为1000美元。然而,在多哈,预计将支付约2433美元。同样,一瓶啤酒在卡塔尔大约要11美元,而在美国大约是5美元。

美国的食品杂货价格比卡塔尔高28.13%,所以如果你自己做饭或者雇人帮你做饭,你可以节省食物费用。卡塔尔税后平均可支配收入为每月3323美元,而美国为2670美元。

如果你的工资是外籍的,你可以期待比你的祖国更高的生活水平。额外津贴包括能够负担得起女佣、厨师、汽车和司机。许多外籍人士在卡塔尔工作的原因是,尽管生活成本很高,但他们挣的钱仍然比在自己的祖国多。

2.获得签证
虽然你可以以游客的身份进入,但如果你想找份工作,你必须有工作许可证。假工作许可证有一些问题,所以最好的办法是亲自去大使馆,而不是通过代理机构。

卡塔尔很大一部分工人是外籍人士,因此找到工作的机会很大。以互联网资源为起点。如果你得到了一个职位,在去机场之前,确保你有所有必要的文书工作——护照、签证、工作许可证——都准备好了。在任何国家与官僚主义打交道都可能很困难,如果你不会说这种语言或不懂这种习俗,情况会更糟。如果可能的话,让你的雇主帮你处理表格并与移民局会面。

3.卫生保健
医疗保健是搬到另一个国家时的另一个问题。在卡塔尔,医疗保健有很高的补贴,但是你必须注册一张健康卡。这种护理使你有权获得补贴处方和免费急救。

要获得医疗保健卡,您需要一份护照和居民许可证副本、卡塔尔身份证副本和两张护照照片。这项服务也是收费的。

人们可能也想购买旅游保险和私人医疗保健。这项保险应该——并且仔细阅读保险单——包括在发生事故或严重疾病的情况下医疗后送至您的原籍国。

4.食物
受伊朗、印度和非洲的混合影响,卡塔尔的传统食物确实令人垂涎三尺。试试烤羊腿或烤鸡。或者点些鹰嘴豆泥。Taboulleh是另一种稳定的沙拉,它是用碎小麦做成的。

那些喜欢当地美食的人可能想上烹饪课,学习如何在家烹饪。另一个选择是让你的女仆/厨师教你如何准备传统菜肴。

但是西餐呢?不要绝望,因为死硬的意外游客可以在乳品皇后、阿比或肯德基吃快餐。

提醒一句:晚餐不要试图点熏肉和鸡蛋或火腿牛排,因为猪肉是穆斯林世界禁止吃的肉。

对于那些喜欢喝葡萄酒或烈酒的人来说,要准备好跳过几个官僚程序。酒精只能在4星级和5星级酒店或政府控制的商店买到——而且价格昂贵。买酒还需要获得许可证——有点像驾照——来证明你是外国人。

5.假日
虽然北美人有他们的传统——星期日、圣诞节和复活节——但卡塔尔的节日是以穆斯林为基础的。用一天五次的呼唤祈祷代替教堂的钟声。检查链接,这样你就知道毛拉(宗教领袖)什么时候会以真主开始。

在基督教世界里,星期五就像星期天。这是一个神圣的日子,人们穿着最好的衣服去清真寺祈祷。清真寺分为男人专用区和女人专用区。然而,大多数妇女呆在家里做饭。

不管有人告诉你什么,绝对没有什么——除了实地经验——可以为斋月做准备。在这个斋戒的神圣时期——这是农历,一年大约有十三天变化——从日出到日落之间,任何食物和饮料都不能通过穆斯林的嘴唇。祈祷——一天说五次——是可选的,但禁食不是。

宴会是为日落准备的,毛拉一发出号召,每个人就开始挖掘。午夜和凌晨一点之间还有一顿大餐。然后,妇女们早起准备早餐,早餐必须在黎明召唤祈祷之前吃完。

斋戒月的结束以持续三天的开斋节(早餐盛宴)来庆祝。

即使你是外国人,斋戒期间也要关起门来吃喝。在中东,外籍人士通常在斋月期间休年假。

杀羊节——就像斋月——只有亲身经历才能真正理解。这个节日可以追溯到旧约时代,当时上帝要求亚伯拉罕牺牲他的儿子,但后来他幸免于难,儿子被一只待宰的羊取代。四天的节日仪式非常清晰地安排好了,节日以宰牲节(装饰盛宴)结束。

6.性别文化
卡塔尔妇女的关键词是谦虚。甚至不要考虑打包比基尼或短裤。

始终确保你的肩膀被盖住,不要露出膝盖。在你的头上围一条时尚的围巾——被称为头巾——会进一步减少猫叫。

西方女性不必穿布卡——一种除了眼睛之外从头到脚覆盖女性的黑色长袍。然而,你露出的皮肤越少,你在街上受到的骚扰就越少。

卡塔尔在传统和现代世界之间变戏法。社会习俗和规则正在慢慢放松,现在全国约有15%的女性从事有偿工作。历史上,他们仅限于教学或护理,但这正在扩展到银行、保险和政府职位。

除非获得工作许可证和批准的工作,否则外籍妇女不得工作。幸运的是——与隔壁的沙特阿拉伯不同——女性可以开车,也可以有银行账户。

说到性别角色,男人是一家之主:没有例外。因此,即使是地球上最顺从的男人的丈夫也必须站出来,在当地人面前表现出男子汉气概。

单身外籍男性可能会忘记在卡塔尔找女朋友,因为年轻女性被关在深闺里(字面意思是“幕后”)。约会是不被鼓励的,所有的安排都必须通过父亲做出,跨文化的关系是不被允许的。
对男性和女性来说,最好的选择是去看看外国人约会的场景。

7.学习几个阿拉伯语单词
没有什么比游客和/或外籍人士更让当地人开心的了,他们试图学习一些他们语言的词汇,因为这有助于打破文化障碍。除非你精通多种语言,否则你的阿拉伯语很可能是有限的。这里有几句话让你开始。
萨拉姆——你好
Kaifa haloka/ haloki(女性)–你好吗
安娜·贝哈尔-我很好。
Kam howa thamanoh?这要花多少钱?
Min fadlika -请
shok ran–谢谢

住在卡塔尔的最好方法是把它视为一次冒险。这将是一个文化挑战,有时会让你分心;这将有助于发展你的性格。但最重要的是,这是你在密尔沃基无法拥有的文化体验。

If you live in Milwaukie and have just been offered a job as an English-second language (ESL) teacher or a position as a chemical engineer at the Laffan Refinery in Qatar, start doing your research. Learn about the people, the culture, and the religion of this interesting Arabic country before you arrive.

Country Facts and Figures
The capital city is Doha.
The currency is the Qatari rial and you can see the exchange rate here.
The population of Qatar is 2,169, which is about the same size as Houston. About 60 percent of the people live in Doha, with the remaining 40 percent in small villages.
The predominant religion is Sunni Muslims at 77.5 percent. Christians, are the second largest group with 8.5 percent. The third largest religion is the Shi’a Muslims at just 4 percent and the remaining 10 percent are classified as other.
The GDP is $93,714USD.

If you are planning to move to Qatar for business make sure you master the business etiquette beforehand. It is important to read about all the aspects of life in Qatar. Even so, be prepared for a culture shock.

Signs and symptoms of culture shock vary from person to person. Indications to watch for include being critical of local customs, traditions and ways of doing things, longing for home, sleeping a lot and being bored.

1. Cost of Living
Start with the cost of living. Some things in Qatar will be much cheaper, while others will be more expensive. The average one-bedroom apartment in America, for example, costs about $1,000 a month. In Doha, however, expect to pay about $2,433. Similarly a bottle of beer costs about $11 in Qatar, while in the US it is about $5.

Groceries in the US are 28.13 percent higher than in Qatar so you can expect to save money on food if you do your own cooking – or hire someone to do it for you. The average disposable income after tax in Qatar is $3,323 a month, while in the United States it is $2,670.

If you are on an expat salary, you can expect a higher standard of living than in your home country. Additional perks include being able to afford a maid, a cook and a car and driver. The reason many expats work in Qatar is that while the cost of living is high, they still earn more money than they would make in their home country.

2. Get a Visa
While you can go in as a tourist, if you want to get a job you have to have a work permit. There has been some trouble with fake work permits, so the best idea is to go to the embassy yourself rather than going through an agency.

A large percentage of the workers in Qatar are expatriates, so the chances of finding employment are good. Use Internet resources as a starting point. If you are offered a position, make sure you have all the necessary paper work – passport, visa, work permit – in order, before heading to the airport. Dealing with bureaucracy in any country can be difficult, and it is worse when you don’t speak the language or understand the customs. If possible, get your employer to help you process the forms and meetings with immigration.

3. Healthcare
Healthcare is another concern when moving to another country. In Qatar, health care is highly subsidized, but you will have to register for a health card. This care entitles you to subsidized prescriptions and free emergency treatment.

To obtain a health care card you will need a copy of your passport and resident permit, copies of your Qatar identification card and two passport photos. There is also a fee for the service.

People might also want to take out travel insurance and private health care as well. This insurance should – and read the policy carefully – include medical evacuation to your country of origin in case of an accident or serious illness.

4. Food
With a mixture of Iranian, Indian and African influences, the traditional food found in Qatar is truly mouth-watering. Try a showarma (spellings vary) which is grilled lamb or chicken. Or order some hummas, made of chickpeas. Taboulleh, a salad made with a base of cracked wheat, is another stable.

Those who enjoy the local cuisine may want to take a cooking class to learn how to make it at home. Another option is to get your maid/cook to teach you how to prepare traditional dishes.

But what about western food? Don’t despair as the die-hard accidental tourists can get their fast-food hit at Dairy Queen, Arby’s or KFC.

One word of caution: don’t try to order bacon with your eggs or ham steak for dinner as pork is a prohibited meat in the Muslim world.

For those who like to imbibe wine or spirits, be prepared to jump a few bureaucratic hoops. Alcohol is available only at 4 and 5-star hotels or from a government controlled store – and it is expensive. To buy liquor you will also need to get a permit – sort of like a driver’s license – to prove you are a foreigner.

5. Holidays
While North Americans have their traditions – Sundays, Christmas and Easter – the holidays in Qatar are Muslim based. Replace the church bells with the call-to-prayer that happens five times a day. Check the link so you know when to expect when the mullah (religious leader) starts with Allahhhhhh.

Friday is like Sunday in the Christian world. It is the holy day when the men dress in their finest and go to the mosque to pray. Mosques are separated into areas for the men and others for the women. The majority of the women, however, stay home to cook the Friday meal.

No matter what anyone tells you, absolutely nothing – except experience on the ground – can prepare you for the month of Ramadan. During this holy period of fasting – which is lunar and changes by about thirteen days a year – no food or drink can pass a Muslim’s lips between sunup and sundown. Prayers – which are said five times a day – are optional, but fasting is not.

Feasts are prepared for sundown and as soon as the mullah issues the call everyone digs in. There is another big meal eaten between midnight and one o’clock in the morning. The women then get up early to prepare a breakfast that has to be consumed before the dawn call to prayer.

The end of the month of fasting is celebrated with the Eid el Fatar (feast of the breakfast) which lasts for three days.

Even though you are a foreigner, eat and drink behind closed doors during the fast. In the Middle East expatriates often take their annual leave during Ramadan.

The sheep killing festival – like Ramadan – is only truly understood by personally experiencing it. The festival relates back to the old testament when God asked Abraham to sacrifice his son but was then spared and the son was replaced by a sheep to be slaughtered. The four day festival ceremonies are very clearly laid out and the festival ends with the Eid al Adha (feast of the adornment).

6. Gender Culture
The operative word for women in Qatar is modesty. And don’t even think about packing a bikini or shorts.

Always make sure your shoulders are covered and don’t expose your knees. Wrap a fashionable scarf –known as a hijib- around your head and it will further reduce the catcalls.

Western women don’t have to wear a burka – a long black robe that covers the woman from head to toe except for the eyes. However, the less skin you show, the less harassment you will get on the street.

Qatar juggles tradition with the modern world. The social mores and rules are slowly relaxing and now about 15 percent of the women in the country work at paid jobs. Historically, they were limited to teaching or nursing, but that is expanding to banking, insurance and working in government positions.

Expatriate women are not allowed to work unless they can get a work permit and an approved job. Fortunately – unlike Saudi Arabia next door – women are allowed to drive and can have a bank account.

When it comes to gender roles, the man is the head of the house: no exceptions. So even husbands who are the most submissive men on the face of the earth have to front up and act macho in front of the locals.

Single expat men can forget about finding a girlfriend in Qatar as the young women are kept in purdah (literally “behind the curtain”). Dating is discouraged and all arrangements have to be made through the father and cross-cultural relationships are frowned upon.
The best option for both sexes is to check out the expat dating scene.

7. Learn a Few Words of Arabic
Nothing makes locals happier than tourists and/or expats who try to learn a few words of their language as it helps break down cultural barriers. Unless you are a polyglot, your Arabic will likely be non-existent to limited. Here are a few words to get you started.
Salam – hello
Kaifa haloka/ haloki ( female) – how are you
Ana bekhair – I’m fine.
Kam howa thamanoh? – How much does this cost?
Min fadlika – please
Shokran – thanks

The best way to approach living in Qatar is to look at it as an adventure. It will be a cultural challenge, it may drive you to distraction at times; it will help develop your character. But best of all, it is a cultural experience you wouldn’t be able to have in Milwaukie.

原文:https://www.careeraddict.com/living-in-qatar-what-you-need-to-know

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