朝鲜战争的十大事实

Over six decades later, we are no closer to a peaceful ending of the conflict.
六十多年后,我们离和平结束冲突还远着呢。

1. The North Koreans captured an American general.
A month after the Korean War broke out, Major General William F. Dean, commander of 24th Infantry Division, was separated from his forces in Taejon while trying to help wounded soldiers. While out seeking water for a particularly injured G.I., he fell down a cliff and was knocked unconscious. He would be isolated in the mountains for the next 36 days, losing 80 pounds in addition to the broken shoulder and head wound he had sustained. When two South Koreans found him, they pretended to lead him to safety, but in fact brought him to a North Korean ambush site. Though Dean tried to fight his captors, he was down to 130 pounds and too weak to resist for long. He was taken prisoner on August 25, 1950, and remained prisoner until the end of the war. (This would have been like the Iraqi insurgency capturing David Petraeus when he was commanding the 101st Airborne in Mosul.)
朝鲜抓获了一名美国将军。
朝鲜战争爆发一个月后,第24步兵师指挥官少将·威廉·迪恩在试图帮助受伤士兵时与他在大田的部队分离。当他出去为一个特别受伤的大兵找水的时候,他从悬崖上摔了下来,被打昏了。在接下来的36天里,他将被隔离在山里,除了肩膀和头部受伤之外,他还瘦了80磅。当两个韩国人找到他时,他们假装把他带到安全的地方,但事实上却把他带到了朝鲜的伏击地点。尽管迪恩试图与抓捕他的人战斗,但他体重只有130磅,身体虚弱,无法长时间抵抗。他于1950年8月25日被俘,一直被囚禁到战争结束。(这就像当大卫·彼得雷乌斯在摩苏尔指挥第101空降师时,伊拉克叛乱分子抓捕他一样。)

2. The Army built an impromptu special operations unit.
The United States lacked a guerrilla warfare capability at the start of the Korean War, and had to put one together, and fast. The result was the 8240th Army Unit, comprised of Rangers and other soldiers with unconventional warfare experience from World War II. They advised indigenous “partisan forces” in Korea on how to fight behind enemy lines to undermine the North Korean Army. In 1952, soldiers with the new designation of “Special Forces” graduated from the U.S. Army Psychological Warfare Center and School, and supplemented the 8240th. At its height, the unit advised 38,000 partisan fighters.
军队建立了一支临时特种作战部队。
朝鲜战争开始时,美国缺乏游击战能力,不得不迅速地将二者结合起来。结果是第8240陆军部队,由游骑兵和其他有二战非常规战争经验的士兵组成。他们建议朝鲜本土的“党派力量”如何在敌人后方作战来削弱朝鲜军队。1952年,新命名为“特种部队”的士兵从美国陆军心理战中心和学校毕业,并补充了8240。在鼎盛时期,该部队向38,000名游击队战士提供建议。

3. The Korean War combined old tactics and new ones on land, sea, and air.
The paratroopers of the 187th Airborne Regimental Combat Team (known as the “Rakkasans”) conducted all of the airborne operations of the Korean War. They jumped into Sunch’?n, North Korea in 1950, and Munsan-ni, South Korea in 1952. The Rakkasans fought in a total of six campaigns in Korea. Today, the unit’s heirs are part of 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault).
朝鲜战争结合了陆地、海洋和空中的新旧战术。
第187空降团战斗队(被称为“Rakkasans”)的伞兵指挥了朝鲜战争的所有空降兵行动。他们于1950年进入朝鲜Sunch’?n,1952年进入韩国Munsan-ni。Rakkasans人在朝鲜总共参加了六场战役。今天,该单位的继承人是第101空降师(空袭)的一部分。

The Battle of Inchon (1950) was an amphibious invasion of Incheon from the Yellow Sea. It was a major victory for United Nations forces, and turned around what was then a losing war. The U.S. Marine-led force was commanded by General of the Army Douglas MacArthur.
仁川战役(1950年)是从黄海对仁川的两栖入侵。这是联合国部队的一次重大胜利,扭转了当时失败的战争。美国海军陆战队领导的部队由道格拉斯·麦克阿瑟陆军将军指挥。

Meanwhile, the Korean War is the first war fought with jet airplanes. Propeller-driven aircraft gave way to P-80 Shooting Stars and Soviet MiG-15s.
同时,朝鲜战争是第一次用喷气式飞机进行的战争。螺旋桨飞机让位给了P-80流星和苏联米格-15。

4. The 38th parallel is a recurring theme before, during, and after the war.
In 1896, the Japanese government proposed to the Russian government that Korea should be split in half along the 38th parallel, with Russia taking control of the north. This probably would have saved everyone a lot of trouble down the line, but the Russians balked and Japan consolidated its hold of Korea in 1910. After World War II, Japan relinquished control, and the U.S. State Department again looked to the 38th parallel to establish two separate countries. In 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea, launching the Korean War. Today, the demilitarized zone dividing the two countries intersects—you guessed it—the 38th parallel.
三八线是战争前、战争中和战争后反复出现的主题。
1896年,日本政府向俄罗斯政府提议,朝鲜应该沿着三八线一分为二,由俄罗斯控制朝鲜。这可能会为每个人省去很多麻烦,但俄罗斯犹豫不决,日本在1910年巩固了对韩国的控制。第二次世界大战后,日本放弃了控制权,美国国务院再次寻求38度纬线建立两个独立的国家。1950年,朝鲜入侵韩国,发动了朝鲜战争。今天,分隔两国的非军事区与38度纬线相交——你猜对了。

5. The Korean War goes by many names.
In the United States, we call it the Korean War (and sometimes the Forgotten War). North Korea calls it the Fatherland Liberation War. In South Korea, it’s called Six-Two-Five, after the day it started. China’s subtle name for the conflict is the War to Resist U.S. Aggression and Aid Korea.
朝鲜战争有许多名字。
在美国,我们称之为朝鲜战争(有时是被遗忘的战争)。朝鲜称之为祖国解放战争。在韩国,它被称为六二五,在它开始的第二天。中国对这场冲突的微妙称呼是抵抗美国侵略和援助朝鲜战争。

6. CIA on NKA: Nothing to see here!
Months before the North Korean Army crossed the 38th parallel, the CIA noted the southward movement of NKA forces, but called it a defensive measure, and called the possibility of an invasion “unlikely.” On June 24, 1950, Dean Acheson, the Secretary of State, had to telephone President Truman. “Mr. President,” he said, “I have very serious news. The North Koreans have invaded South Korea.”
中情局对NKA:这里没什么可看的!
在朝鲜军队越过三八线前几个月,中央情报局注意到NKA军队向南移动,但称之为防御措施,并称入侵的可能性“不大”1950年6月24日,国务卿迪安·艾奇逊不得不打电话给杜鲁门总统。“总统先生,”他说,“我有非常严肃的消息。朝鲜入侵了韩国。”

7. The American occupying force in Japan provided manpower for the Korean War.
At the war’s start, it was pretty clear that Republic of Korean forces were outmatched by the North Korean Army. General MacArthur personally went to the front lines to get a look at the situation. He quickly requested ground troops to help save the situation. President Truman eventually authorized the movement of two full divisions from Japan to Korea. The divisions, coming from the relatively peaceful job of occupying Japan following World War II, were something less than battle-ready—especially when compared with the North Korean veterans. It was during the successful two-month defense of Busan, South Korea, that American forces were finally hardened for war.
美国驻日本占领军为朝鲜战争提供了人力。
战争开始时,很明显大韩民国的军队比朝鲜军队强。麦克阿瑟将军亲自去前线了解情况。他迅速请求地面部队帮助挽救局势。杜鲁门总统最终授权将两个完整的师从日本转移到韩国。这些分歧来自二战后占领日本的相对和平的工作,还没有做好战斗准备——尤其是与朝鲜老兵相比。正是在韩国釜山为期两个月的成功防御期间,美国军队终于为战争做好了准备。

8. The Korean War provided an early victory for a secret American signals intelligence agency.
As I describe in my book, the American intelligence community faced its worst fears on Friday, October 29, 1948, when the Soviet Union disappeared. While post-war America dismantled its signals intelligence and cryptanalysis capabilities, the Russians were doubling down. On “Black Friday,” as it was called, the Soviets activated a new communications grid and encryption methodology. Signals began transmitting by cable, cutting off most radio interceptions; what little remained was indecipherable. In response, the Secretary of Defense ordered the creation of a Top Secret organization known as the Armed Forces Security Agency (AFSA).
朝鲜战争为一个秘密的美国信号情报机构提供了早期的胜利。
正如我在书中所描述的,美国情报界在1948年10月29日星期五面临最大的恐惧,当时苏联消失了。二战后,美国摧毁了其信号情报和密码分析能力,而俄罗斯则加倍努力。在被称为“黑色星期五”的那天,苏联启动了一种新的通信网格和加密方法。信号开始通过电缆传输,切断了大部分无线电拦截;剩下的很少是无法理解的。对此,国防部长下令成立一个名为武装部队安全局(AFSA)的绝密组织。

Though AFSA suffered from institutional dysfunction and wasn’t particularly effective against the Soviets, it had good fortune during the Korean War, intercepting high-level North Korean broadcasts. To the astonishment of the agency’s signals-intelligence specialists, North Korea was broadcasting the details of its most sensitive military operations in plaintext, with no encryption at all. When the North Koreans finally got wise to America’s interception prowess, AFSA made short work of the new ciphers. AFSA would eventually be reorganized as the National Security Agency.
尽管AFSA遭受着体制障碍的困扰,对苏联也不是特别有效,但它在朝鲜战争期间运气不错,截获了朝鲜的高级别广播。令该机构的信号情报专家惊讶的是,朝鲜以明文形式广播其最敏感的军事行动细节,根本没有加密。当朝鲜人最终了解到美国的拦截能力时,AFSA对新密码做了简短的工作。AFSA最终将重组为国家安全局。

9. The United States had dropped the Bomb only five years earlier, and was ready to do it again.
In 1950, the Bomb was only five years old and the wonder of the atomic age promised a bright nuclear future. It was just assumed that atomic weapons would be part of any future conflict—like the Korean War, for example. The Joint Chiefs of Staff ordered the employment of the atomic bomb against China if it sent troops or bombers into Korea. China ignored the threat. Likewise, there were plans to drop the Bomb on the Soviet Union if it got involved, but European leaders objected to such an escalation, fearing the Soviets would us it as a justification for the conquest of Europe. Accordingly, the United States promised to use atomic weapons in Korea only to prevent a “major military disaster.”
仅在五年前,美国就投掷了原子弹,并准备再次投掷。
1950年,原子弹只有五年历史,原子时代的奇迹预示着一个光明的核未来。人们只是假设原子武器会成为任何未来冲突的一部分——比如朝鲜战争。如果中国向朝鲜派遣军队或轰炸机,参谋长联席会议命令对中国使用原子弹。中国无视这一威胁。同样,如果苏联卷入其中,也有向其投放炸弹的计划,但欧洲领导人反对这种升级,担心苏联会把它作为征服欧洲的理由。因此,美国承诺在朝鲜使用原子武器只是为了防止“重大军事灾难”

10. The Korean War never ended.
On July 27, 1953, American Lieutenant General William Harrison, Jr. and North Korean General Nam Il signed the Korean Armistice Agreement, ending “all acts of armed force” in Korea, until both sides were able to find a “final peaceful settlement.” The agreement was notably not a peace treaty, but rather, a ceasefire. Over 60 years later, it seems we are no closer to a peaceful ending of the conflict.
朝鲜战争从未结束。
1953年7月27日,美国小中将·威廉·哈里森和朝鲜将军南日签署了朝鲜停战协定,结束了朝鲜的“一切武装行动”,直到双方能够找到“最终和平解决办法”该协议显然不是和平条约,而是停火协议。60多年后,我们似乎离和平结束冲突还远着呢。

This article originally appeared in 2013.
这篇文章最初出现在2013年。

原文:
10 Facts About the Korean War
https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/49726/10-things-you-might-not-know-about-korean-war

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