我们中没有多少人知道迷人的中国古代发明

If we have a close look at the pages of history, we will realize that there were numerous ancient Chinese inventions that ranged from mathematics and engineering to agriculture and industry. All these inventions have contributed to the betterment of the human race.
如果我们仔细看看历史,我们会发现中国古代有许多发明,从数学和工程到农业和工业。所有这些发明都为人类的进步做出了贡献。

China has had a very active part to play in technology reaching where it is today. For over a thousand years, the ancient Chinese people were regarded to be quite a sophisticated civilization, and we are still using the things the ancient Chinese invented. Mathematics, warfare, and transportation are but a few of the fields where the Chinese excelled in. Many of these treasured inventions were taken by the Europeans back to their homeland and made famous. Going forth we will discuss some of the most important of all the ancient Chinese inventions that were fundamental to the progress of this nation.
中国在技术发展到今天的水平方面发挥了非常积极的作用。一千多年来,古代中国人被认为是一个相当复杂的文明,我们仍然在使用古代中国人发明的东西。数学、战争和交通只是中国人擅长的几个领域。许多这些珍贵的发明被欧洲人带回了他们的祖国,并出名了。接下来,我们将讨论一些对这个国家的进步至关重要的中国古代发明。

Important Chinese Inventions
In Engineering
Here’s where steel and iron developed. 1200 years before the Europeans used the blast furnace, obtaining cast iron from iron ore had already been developed by the Chinese folks around the 4th century. In the 2nd century BC, refining iron into steel had already been developed by the Chinese; in contrast to the popular belief that Henry Bessemer discovered the process of refining iron into steel. A superior weapon with a strong edge was created by welding strong steel with weaker iron.
中国的重要发明
工程学
这里是钢铁发展的地方。在欧洲人使用高炉之前的1200年,中国人在大约4世纪就已经开发了从铁矿石中获取铸铁。公元前2世纪,中国人已经将铁提炼成钢;与普遍认为亨利·贝塞默发现了将铁精炼成钢的过程相反。一种优势很强的武器是通过把强钢和弱铁焊接而成的。

The Chain pump was invented by the Chinese in the 1st century BC; this device allows water to be pumped from lower to higher elevations. This is also used for irrigation that is needed in farming. In Europe, the first chain pump appeared in the 16th century.
链条泵是中国人在公元前1世纪发明的;这个装置可以将水从较低的高度泵送到较高的高度。这也用于农业所需的灌溉。在欧洲,第一台链条泵出现在16世纪。

Around 1st century AD, the Chinese developed a drilling method to drill boreholes up to 48,000 feet. Deep drilling was then used to find natural gas.
Mechanical clocks were invented in China in 8th century AD. The Chinese people invented this device in conjunction with astrology because Chinese Emperors were regarded as cosmic figures.
大约公元1世纪,中国人开发了一种钻孔方法,可以钻48,000英尺深的钻孔。深度钻井然后被用来寻找天然气。
机械钟是公元8世纪在中国发明的。中国人发明了这个装置和占星术,因为中国皇帝被视为宇宙人物。

In Domestic and Industry
One of the most recognized ancient inventions of the Chinese is the immediate precursor to paper around the 2nd century BC. Though the earliest dated record was papyrus which was a form of scroll that ancient Egyptians used to write on, the developing and pulp-making process that gave birth to the modern version of paper that we use today is credited to the Chinese. The basic processes that are involved in extracting the final result i.e. papyrus and paper, are different.
Matches were another invention of the Chinese. Impoverished court ladies invented the first version of matches around 577 A.D. during a military siege in the short lived Northern Ch’i kingdom. The early versions of matches were sulfur-made. There was no evidence that matches appeared in Europe before 1530. Hence, it’s possible that the first matches that appeared in Europe were brought over by travelers that visited the East.
在国内和工业领域
中国最著名的古代发明之一是公元前2世纪纸的直接前身。尽管最早的记录是纸莎草纸,这是古埃及人用来书写的卷轴形式,但产生我们今天使用的现代纸的发展和制浆过程被认为是中国人的功劳。提取最终结果(即纸莎草纸和纸)的基本过程是不同的。
火柴是中国人的另一项发明。公元577年左右,在短暂的北齐国军事包围期间,贫穷的宫廷女性发明了第一种火柴。早期版本的火柴是硫磺制的。没有证据表明火柴在1530年之前出现在欧洲。因此,欧洲出现的第一场比赛可能是由去过东方的旅行者带来的。

Between the years 1041 and 1048, Bi Sheng invented the movable type which is a form of printing. In the West, Johann Gutenberg is credited with introducing the movable type to Europe.
在1041年到1048年间,毕升发明了活字印刷术。在西方,约翰·古腾堡被认为是将活字印刷术引入欧洲的人。

Paper money was invented sometime in the 7th century AD. Silk notes were introduced by the Mongols who instead of precious metals asked for bundles of silk yarn in return as a form of deposit.
纸币是在公元7世纪的某个时候发明的。丝绸纸币是蒙古人引进的,他们要求用成捆的丝绸来代替贵重金属作为保证金。

In Agriculture
Winnowing is the separation of husk and stalk from grain after it is harvested. The Rotary Winnowing fan was invented around 2nd century BC. The Iron Plow was first promoted by Chinese government officials around 4th century BC. It was strong, heavy, square framed, and sturdy with an adjustable strut to regulate the plowing depth. Growing of crops in rows too was first practiced by the Chinese .Plants mature rapidly, when grown in rows. The Chinese had been doing this for over 2200.
在农业领域
风选是谷物收获后从谷物中分离出壳和茎。旋转风选风扇是在公元前2世纪左右发明的。铁犁最早是由中国政府官员在公元前4世纪左右推广的。它结实、沉重、方形框架、坚固,带有可调节的支柱来调节耕作深度。农作物成排种植也是中国人最早实行的。植物成排生长时会迅速成熟。中国人已经这样做了2200多年。

In Warfare
Alchemists, on the quest to find the elixir of immortality stumbled upon the invention of gunpowder. This obviously gave them the upper-hand when it came to products of an explosive nature hence, soon after the invention of gunpowder came the invention of fireworks followed by the first examples of gunpowder based weapons, and then a string of explosives. The formula for creating gunpowder was released in 1040 by Tseng Kung-Liang.
在战争中
炼金术士在寻找长生不老药的过程中,偶然发现了火药的发明。这显然使他们在爆炸性产品上占了上风。因此,在火药发明后不久,烟火发明了,接着是火药武器的第一个例子,然后是一串炸药。制造火药的配方是曾公亮在1040年公布的。

We all assume that the Flame-thrower, a device that can continuously emit flame, was invented only around the 20th century, however, the Chinese people invented it around 10th century AD. The first use of this device was around 904 AD on a naval battle at the Yangtze River. Almost 150,000 soldiers were caught by the flame it belched out.
The first Chinese Bomb was used around the 17th century to precipitate rain. The fuse was saturated with gunpowder while the gunpowder was wrapped in paper and sealed with wax. The Rocket Launcher – a multistage one, was used in naval battle around 14th century. The second-stage rocket would ignite when the rocket’s head burnt out. In a flat trajectory, it could fly around three to four feet above the water, for a mile. This was the predecessor of the surface skimming naval rocket launcher.
我们都认为喷火器,一种能持续发射火焰的装置,是在大约20世纪发明的,然而,中国人在大约公元10世纪发明了它。这种装置的首次使用是在公元904年长江海战中。将近150,000名士兵被它喷出的火焰击中。
大约在17世纪,第一枚中国炸弹被用来降雨。导火索被火药浸透,而火药被纸包着,用蜡密封。火箭发射器——一种多级发射器,大约在14世纪用于海战。当火箭的头部烧坏时,第二级火箭就会点火。在平坦的轨道上,它可以在水面上飞行三到四英尺,飞行一英里。这是掠水面海军火箭发射器的前身。

In Mathematics
Much of the Western world believe that Blaise Pascal invented the “Pascal Triangle” in 1654. However, this formula was studied much before by the Chinese, Persians, Indians and so on. Chinese algebra originated somewhere in the 13th century with the formulation of the Precious Mirror of the Four Elements that was created by Chu Shih Chieh. He also called his work “The Tabulation system for unlocking binomial coefficients.”
在数学中
许多西方世界认为布莱士·帕斯卡在1654年发明了“帕斯卡三角”。然而,这个公式很久以前就被中国人、波斯人、印度人等等研究过。中国代数起源于13世纪的某个地方,由朱世杰创立的《四元素宝镜》的提法。他还称自己的工作为“解锁二项式系数的制表系统”

Pi is used to compute the volume of a sphere and area of a circle. After the introduction of the value of pi in three decimal places by Archimedes, and Ptolemy for four decimal places, no advancement for accuracy was achieved in the Western world. Liu Hui, after inscribing a polygon with 192 sides in a circle, thus calculated a value of pi as 3.14159.
In the 5th century, the father and son tandem of Tsu Chung-Chih and Tsu Keng-Chih came about to obtain the most accurate value of pi which is 3.1415929203. The calculation of pi by Adriaen Anthoniszoon only gave 3.14929, extending only to seven places approximately – three digits short to that of the Tsu family.
The ancient Chinese calculator known as the Abacus was made of beads that were inserted into rods that were held apart by two pieces of wood. This is an early version of the calculator that Chinese folks invented around 5000 years ago. This invention was so successful that it soon spread to all other countries. Even though technology has left the abacus behind only as a memory, it is still used today by a few people around the globe.
圆周率用来计算球体的体积和圆的面积。阿基米德引入小数点后三位的圆周率,托勒密引入小数点后四位的圆周率后,西方世界在精确度方面没有取得任何进步。刘辉把一个有192条边的多边形刻成一个圆后,计算出圆周率为3.14159。
在5世纪,苏中智和苏庆智父子一前一后开始获得圆周率的最精确值,即3.1415929203。阿德里安·安托尼索恩(Adriaen Anthoniszoon)对圆周率的计算结果仅为3.14929,仅延伸至7个地方——比苏通家族少3位数。
中国古代的计算器算盘是由珠子制成的,珠子被插入由两片木头分开的杆中。这是大约5000年前中国人发明的计算器的早期版本。这项发明如此成功,以至于它很快传播到所有其他国家。尽管科技只留下算盘作为记忆,但今天全球仍有少数人使用它。

In Food and Drink
The first tea was brewed in China, and that too by accident. Legend has it that when Emperor Shen Nong stopped to rest during a long journey, he told his servants to boil some hot water for him which he had the habit of sipping on because he thought it was good for health. While doing so a few camellia leaves fell in by mistake, the aroma that it gave out was so delicious that he couldn’t resist tasting it. He found it so refreshing that he proclaimed that tea was good for health.
在饮食方面
第一杯茶是在中国酿造的,这也是偶然的。传说神农皇帝在长途旅行中停下来休息时,他告诉他的仆人给他煮些热水,他有啜饮的习惯,因为他认为这有益于健康。在这样做的时候,有几片山茶叶子不小心掉了进来,它散发出的香气如此美味,他忍不住品尝了一下。他发现茶如此提神,以至于他宣称茶有益健康。

These were the main contributions that the Chinese had to give to the world that has changed it in a way that no one could possibly imagine without. Coming to think of it, what would we do without a calculator, or for that matter how dull would a celebration be if it weren’t for fireworks, or how would you kick-start your day if it weren’t for a hot cup of teaThese inventions have helped shape the world and definitely made it a better place to live in.
这些是中国人必须对世界做出的主要贡献,改变了世界,这是任何人都无法想象的。想想看,如果没有计算器,我们会做什么,或者如果没有烟火,庆祝会有多无聊,或者如果没有热茶,你会如何开始新的一天。这些发明帮助塑造了这个世界,并肯定让它成为一个更好的居住场所。
原文:
Fascinating Ancient Chinese Inventions Not Many of Us are Aware Of
https://historyplex.com/ancient-chinese-inventions

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