民主的利弊

Democracy is a system of government where the entire population or eligible members of the state have the opportunity to vote on issues directly or send someone that they elect to make those decisions on their behalf. It is a governing structure where rule comes from the people instead of the military or state. Although it is an option that is usually associated with the United States, the Declaration of Independence makes no word of this option.
民主是一种政府制度,在这种制度下,全体人民或合格的国家成员都有机会直接就问题进行投票,或者派他们选择的人代表他们做出这些决定。这是一个统治结构,统治来自人民,而不是军队或国家。虽然这是一个通常与美国有关的选项,但《独立宣言》并没有提到这一选项。

The founding fathers of the United States actually feared the idea of democratic rule. James Madison mentioned in one of the federalist papers that this form of government could lead to confusion, instability, and injustice. They were scared that a popular government would eventually perish because that was happening more often than not everyone else in the world.
美国的开国元勋们实际上害怕民主统治的想法。詹姆斯·麦迪逊在联邦党的一篇论文中提到,这种形式的政府会导致混乱、不稳定和不公正。他们害怕一个受欢迎的政府最终会灭亡,因为这种情况比世界上其他任何人都要频繁发生。

What history does not always remember is that the Roman Empire once had a working democracy during the early years of their existence. You can even visit the Forum still to this day, which is where their meetings and votes were held. Even Vladimir Lenin felt that democracy was the goal of communism, using a dictator to control the proletariat until such a status became possible.
历史并不总是记得罗马帝国在其存在的早期曾经有一个运转良好的民主国家。你甚至可以访问论坛,直到今天,这是他们举行会议和投票的地方。甚至弗拉基米尔·列宁也认为民主是共产主义的目标,利用独裁者来控制无产阶级,直到这种地位成为可能。

Now many believe that a democracy is the best form of government that is available today because it gives each person the freedom to have a voice. These are the advantages and disadvantages of such a system to consider.
现在许多人认为民主是当今最好的政府形式,因为它给予每个人有发言权的自由。这些是需要考虑的这种系统的优点和缺点。

List of the Advantages of Democracy
民主的优势列表

1. Democracies give people a chance to become personally involved with their government.
Because the government in a democracy is under the control of the people and their voice, then it is up to each individual to decide their fate. People can choose to vote in whatever way their morality dictates. Some even give voters the option to not vote if that is what they feel is the best way to express their opinion.
民主给了人们一个亲自参与政府的机会。
因为民主国家的政府是在人民和他们的声音的控制下,那么就要由每个人来决定他们的命运。人们可以选择以他们道德要求的任何方式投票。有些人甚至给选民选择不投票的权利,如果这是他们认为表达意见的最好方式。

Every ballot is an opportunity to express one’s personal opinion. Whether that voice lands in the majority or not, there is an agreement in a democracy that the tally of the vote stands unless there is a clear moral objection to the outcome. A community won’t object over the failure of a tax levy for a swimming pool, but the judicial system might step in if the people vote to accept a local ordinance that allows slavery.
每次投票都是表达个人观点的机会。无论这一声音是否占多数,民主国家都一致认为,除非对投票结果有明确的道义上的反对,否则投票结果是可信的。社区不会反对游泳池税收的失败,但是如果人民投票接受允许奴隶制的地方法令,司法系统可能会介入。

2. A democracy encourages equality in a positive way.
民主以积极的方式鼓励平等。
The structure of a democracy gives every vote an equal amount of weight during an election. This option gives each person the chance to cast a ballot without judgment when they register for this process, providing an opinion that despite their social or economic status. Everything “yes” or “no” counts as one, whether you are rich or poor, own land or not, of express your gender in a specific way.
在选举中,民主的结构赋予每一张选票同等的权重。这种选择让每个人在登记参加投票时都有机会不经判断就投票,提供的意见是,尽管他们的社会或经济地位不同。无论你是富有还是贫穷,是否拥有土地,一切“是”或“否”都是以一种特定的方式表达你的性别。
“Democracy and socialism have nothing in common but one word: equality,” said Alexis de Tocqueville. “But notice the difference; while democracy seeks equality in liberty, socialism seeks equality in restraint and servitude.”
“民主和社会主义没有任何共同之处,只有一个词:平等,”亚历西斯·德·托克维尔说。“但是请注意区别;民主追求自由中的平等,社会主义追求克制和奴役中的平等。”

3. The structure of a democracy works to reduce issues with exploitation.
民主的结构致力于减少剥削问题。
All government formations are sensitive to exploitation because of the people who get elected into powerful positions. The contrast with democracy is that the authorities are distributed more equally within it. The ruling documents in this structure create checks and balances to assure that no single person receives supreme power over the legislative process.
所有的政府机构对剥削都很敏感,因为人们被选到了有权力的位置。与民主形成对比的是,权力在民主中的分配更加平等。这一结构中的裁决文件建立了制衡机制,以确保没有一个人获得立法程序的最高权力。

Democracies prevent elected officials from ignoring the needs of the general population to help themselves. It challenges them to represent the needs of each community so that everyone receives an equal opportunity to pursue their dreams.
民主防止民选官员忽视普通民众自助的需求。它要求他们代表每个社区的需求,以便每个人都有平等的机会追求自己的梦想。

4. Democracies usually grow faster economically than other forms of government.
民主国家通常比其他形式的政府在经济上发展得更快。
The freedom offered in the structures of democracy allows the general population to seek any result they want. Although legal barriers exist to prevent one person from hurting another, this governing structure grants the freedom to look for different employment opportunities, schools, or even places to live. The choice remains with your voice.
民主结构中提供的自由允许普通民众寻求他们想要的任何结果。尽管存在法律障碍来防止一个人伤害另一个人,但这种治理结构赋予了寻找不同就业机会、学校甚至居住地的自由。选择权在你自己。

You get an opportunity to seek what you are enthusiastic about in this life. The structure of democracy makes it possible for everyone to stay fruitful with their work because they are always employing their strengths. That is why the gross domestic product of a country which features constitutional arrangements is typically larger.
你有机会寻找你此生最热衷的东西。民主的结构使每个人都有可能在工作中保持成果,因为他们总是发挥自己的优势。这就是为什么一个以宪法安排为特征的国家的国内生产总值通常较大。

5. There is more consistency available in democracy than other government structures.
民主比其他政府结构更具一致性。
There is more unity in the governing process with democracy because the general population holds the right to vote on resolutions. This arrangement can take different styles, but the result is generally the same. Each person gets the chance to express their view at their polling stations by casting a vote. That process allows each community to continue pursuing the specific results that they feel are helpful, or they can switch directions to try something new.
民主的治理过程更加统一,因为普通民众有权对决议进行表决。这种安排可以采取不同的风格,但结果通常是相同的。每个人都有机会通过投票在投票站表达自己的观点。这个过程允许每个社区继续追求他们认为有帮助的特定结果,或者他们可以改变方向去尝试新的东西。

The structure of democracy makes it possible for everyone to come together in a way that forms society in ways that are helpful for virtually all people.
民主的结构使每个人都有可能以对几乎所有人都有帮助的方式组成社会。

6. Democracy does not create a centralized power base for ruling over the people.
民主并没有为统治人民创造一个集中的权力基础。
The United States uses a centralized form of governing, but there are equal powers distributed between the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. Voters have an opportunity to change their elected officials every 2-6 years as a way to control their destiny.
美国采用中央集权的治理形式,但是在行政、立法和司法部门之间有平等的权力分配。选民有机会每2-6年更换一次当选官员,以此来控制自己的命运。
In a direct democracy, every decision would be placed to a vote for a supreme level of control. Either way, there is no centralized power that can dictate what people can or cannot do. Every branch of the government must agree on the process. Then each community can make decisions with their voting power to overturn unwanted rules and regulations to evolve life over time.
在直接民主制下,每一项决定都将被投票表决,以获得最高级别的控制权。无论哪种方式,都没有中央集权来决定人们能做什么或不能做什么。政府的每一个部门都必须在这个过程上达成一致。然后,每个社区都可以用他们的投票权来做决定,推翻不必要的规则和条例,随着时间的推移来发展生活。

7. People identify with their government to create a stronger level of patriotism.
人们认同他们的政府,以创造更强的爱国主义。
The structures of democracy are unique because they allow everyone to fight for the things that they want in life. Each person can pursue their dreams, working to mold society in a vision that meets their expectations. Even when that idea runs counter to what the majority wants or falls outside of an expected window of morality, there is an ability to express those ideas assuming that others are not hurt by such an effort.
民主的结构是独一无二的,因为它们允许每个人都为他们在生活中想要的东西而奋斗。每个人都可以追求自己的梦想,努力在符合自己期望的愿景中塑造社会。即使这种想法与大多数人想要的相反,或者超出了预期的道德范围,也有能力表达这些想法,假设其他人没有受到这种努力的伤害。
That is why there is more loyalty and patriotism present in democracy. Even when there is disagreement in the community, everyone still has the common ground of their nation to fall back upon when forming their identity. Everyone contributes in their own way, which this governing structure celebrates. Other governments can dictate those choices.
这就是为什么民主中存在更多的忠诚和爱国主义。即使社区中存在分歧,每个人在形成自己的身份时仍然可以依靠自己国家的共同点。每个人都以自己的方式做出贡献,这是这个治理结构所庆祝的。其他政府可以支配这些选择。

8. Countries who use democracy are less likely to enter into armed conflicts.
使用民主的国家不太可能卷入武装冲突。
As democracy has come through Europe once again, the levels of warfare between the major nations on the continent have decreased significantly. There have been fewer conflicts in the past 50 years than at any other time in history. Although the United States is an exception to this advantage because of the country’s status on the global stage, most nations who focus on a democracy avoid battles instead of chasing after them.
随着民主再次席卷欧洲,欧洲大陆主要国家之间的战争水平大幅下降。过去50年里,冲突比历史上任何时候都少。尽管美国是这一优势的例外,因为该国在全球舞台上的地位,但大多数注重民主的国家避免战争,而不是追逐战争。

That means there are fewer issues with violent rebellion within democratic societies as well. Decisions must route through various legislative bodies or the people, which reduces the pursuit of war on a whim. There are fewer coup attempts within this governing structure as well.
这意味着民主社会中暴力叛乱的问题也较少。决策必须经过各种立法机构或人民,这减少了一时兴起的战争追求。在这个治理结构中,政变企图也较少。

9. A democracy transitions power smoothly while establishing legitimacy.
民主在确立合法性的同时平稳过渡权力。
Democracy creates an appropriate structure of government for every person because voters select who will be in charge or how policies are made if a direct form of governing is in place. This process demands that each candidate for office declare before their voters the reasons why they are the best person to represent each community.
民主为每一个人创造了一个合适的政府结构,因为选民选择谁来负责,或者如果有一种直接的治理形式,政策是如何制定的。这一过程要求每个竞选公职的候选人向他们的选民宣布为什么他们是代表每个社区的最佳人选。

By winning an election, it becomes possible to establish legitimacy for political candidates or referendums that other forms of governing cannot provide. When leaders change in democracy, the checks and balances offered by this format make it possible to produce smooth transitions when power changes hands. There are fewer arguments about who becomes the replacement for any position. This outcome occurs because each job is either directed by the people or filled by someone who won an election.
通过赢得选举,就有可能为政治候选人或公民投票确立合法性,而这是其他形式的治理所不能提供的。当领导人在民主制度下改变时,这种形式提供的制衡使得权力交接时产生平稳过渡成为可能。关于谁将取代任何职位的争论越来越少。出现这种结果是因为每份工作要么由人民指导,要么由赢得选举的人来填补。

10. It encourages centrism more than extremism.
它鼓励中间派多于极端主义。
Even in this current wave of populism that is happening around the world, the format of democracy encourages people to come to the center more often than it favors the extreme. There are times when a complete majority of a single party can win an election, but even then, there can be enough disagreement within the ranks that compromises must happen. This process makes it possible for voters or their representatives to aggregate the different needs of each community toward a coherent policy that protects the needs of everyone. That ensures that the interests of each segment of society can receive the protection they need while providing a higher level of accountability for the governing actions which occur.
即使在当前世界各地正在发生的民粹主义浪潮中,民主的形式鼓励人们更频繁地走到中心,而不是偏向极端。有时候,一个政党的绝对多数能够赢得选举,但即便如此,党内仍有足够的分歧,必须做出妥协。这一过程使选民或他们的代表有可能将每个社区的不同需求聚集在一起,制定一项保护每个人需求的连贯政策。这确保了社会各阶层的利益能够得到他们所需要的保护,同时对所发生的治理行动提供更高层次的问责。

List of the Disadvantages of Democracy
民主的弊端列表
1. Democracy is ineffective unless voters educate themselves on governing decisions.
民主是无效的,除非选民教育自己如何管理决策。
A democracy allows an individual to cast a vote either directly or through a preferred representative on the issues that the government must manage. There is no direction as to how voters approach this responsibility. Although some people will educate themselves on each issue to offer an experienced opinion, there is no requirement to go through all of this work. Someone can turn in a ballot that is a straight-party ticket with no consideration about the individual views or needs.
民主允许个人直接或通过首选代表就政府必须处理的问题投票。选民如何承担这一责任没有方向。尽管有些人会就每个问题进行自我教育,以提供有经验的意见,但并不要求完成所有这些工作。有人可以投出一张不考虑个人观点或需求的直党票。
President Teddy Roosevelt reportedly once said this: “A vote is like a rifle; its usefulness depends upon the character of the user.”
据报道,泰迪·罗斯福总统曾经说过:“投票就像步枪;它的有用性取决于用户的性格。”

2. The structure of democracy depends upon the will of the majority.
民主的结构取决于大多数人的意愿。
History has taught us that the will of the majority is not always the ethical or moral position that one should take. We have dealt with issues like slavery, discrimination, and gender inequality in the past because the perspective of the those with the most votes say that society deserves to have those elements. If someone finds themselves outside of the will of the majority more often than not, then it will feel like their vote doesn’t really count for something.
历史告诉我们,大多数人的意愿并不总是一个人应该采取的伦理或道德立场。我们过去曾处理过奴隶制、歧视和性别不平等等问题,因为得票最多者的观点认为,社会理应拥有这些要素。如果有人经常发现自己不符合大多数人的意愿,那么他们的投票就不会有什么价值。
“Majority rule only works if you’re also considering individual rights,” said Larry Flynt. “Because you can’t have five wolves and one sheep voting on what they should all be having for supper.”
“多数原则只有在你也考虑个人权利的情况下才有效,”拉里·弗林特说。“因为你不能让五只狼和一只羊投票决定他们晚饭应该吃什么。”

3. Democracy can encourage mob rule.
民主可以鼓励暴民统治。
People are migrating toward neighborhoods, employment opportunities, and even relationships based on how comfortable they are around other people. The prevalence is to have neighbors and friends who have a like-minded perspective because there is a fear present in democracy of being wrong. No one wants to be stuck on the outside looking in when it comes to governing. Some states in the U.S. are even becoming polarized as families keep moving to stay within their comfort zone. Democracies encourage mob thinking because every election becomes an “us vs. them” edict.
人们正在向邻里、就业机会甚至人际关系迁移,这取决于他们与他人相处的舒适程度。流行的是有志同道合的邻居和朋友,因为民主中存在对错误的恐惧。谈到治理,没有人想被堵在外面往里看。美国的一些州甚至变得两极分化,因为家庭不断搬家,以待在舒适区内。民主鼓励民众思考,因为每次选举都变成了“美国对他们”的法令。
“Remember,” Will Rogers reportedly warned, “democracy never lasts long. It soon wastes, exhausts, and murders itself. There never was a democracy yet that did not commit suicide.”
据报道,威尔·罗杰斯警告说,“记住,民主不会长久。它很快就浪费、耗尽和谋杀了自己。从来没有一个民主国家不自杀。”

4. The cost of democracy is something that many people don’t realize exists.
民主的代价是许多人没有意识到的。
Democracy is one of the least cost-efficient forms of governing that exists today. The time and currency resources that are necessary to conduct an election can cost billions of dollars. Even a local election for city council, mayor, or a school board can cost six figures. The Presidential elections every four years in the United States are measured in the billions. Although it is useful to have the people to have power in their voice, their taxes are what are used to create that opportunity.
民主是当今最不具成本效益的治理形式之一。举行选举所需的时间和货币资源可能会耗费数十亿美元。甚至市议会、市长或学校董事会的地方选举也要花费六位数。美国每四年举行一次总统选举,以十亿计。尽管让人民有发言权是有益的,但他们的税收是用来创造机会的。
“Democracy is the worst form of government,” warned Winston Churchill, “except for all of the others.”
“民主是最糟糕的政府形式,”温斯顿·丘吉尔警告说,“除了所有其他形式。”

5. Democracy requires more time to implement changes.
民主需要更多的时间来实施变革。
Centralized government structures can make declarations on rules, regulations, or responses that are not always possible in a democratic structure. Voting requires time to review the information provided by each election. That means processes slow down to the point where it can take several years to create significant changes. There may only be 1-2 legislative bills that come through in an entire session that go beyond the typical budgets, committees, and nominations that officials manage.
中央政府机构可以对规则、法规或回应做出声明,而这些在民主结构中并不总是可能的。投票需要时间来审查每次选举提供的信息。这意味着过程会慢下来,到需要几年才能产生重大变化的程度。在整个会议中,可能只有1-2项立法议案获得通过,超出了官员管理的典型预算、委员会和提名。
It even takes more time at the local level to make decisions with democracy because each referendum must go to the voters. Every decision is up for review potentially. That means there is always a certain level of uncertainty.
在地方一级,用民主来做决定甚至需要更多的时间,因为每次公民投票都必须由选民来决定。每一个决定都有可能被审查。这意味着总是有一定程度的不确定性。

6. The structure of a democracy is a person-first process.
民主的结构是一个以人为本的过程。
Elections usually involve the opinions or thoughts of each person based on what individuals want for themselves. Instead of looking at what might be useful for the rest of society, most voters gauge what they put on their ballot based on what affects their checking account, taxes, or overall cost of living. It is a process which encourages everyone to put their needs before others.
选举通常包括每个人的意见或想法,基于个人想要什么。大多数选民不是着眼于对社会其他部分有用的东西,而是根据影响他们的支票账户、税收或总体生活成本的因素来衡量他们投了什么票。这是一个鼓励每个人把自己的需求放在第一位的过程。
When people are voting based on personal interests, then it creates discontent in society because it feels like the majority tries to suppress the minority. That is why there must be an emphasis on protecting the rights of those who find themselves on the outside.
当人们基于个人利益投票时,就会在社会上引起不满,因为大多数人都想压制少数人。这就是为什么必须强调保护那些置身于外部的人的权利。

7. There is still the risk of creating a conflict of interest within the government.
政府内部仍有产生利益冲突的风险。
Most people work to retain what they have after it is earned. That is why families keep making mortgage or rental payments, managers continue to reinforce their expertise, and politicians do their best to stay in power. Democracies put structures into place to limit the impact of one person on the overall society, but it was not always that way.
大多数人工作是为了在赚到钱后保留他们拥有的东西。这就是为什么家庭不断支付抵押贷款或租金,经理们继续加强他们的专业知识,政治家们尽最大努力保住权力。民主国家建立了结构来限制一个人对整个社会的影响,但并不总是这样。
Franklin D. Roosevelt served in office from March 1933 to April 1945. He served as the 32nd President won a record four Presidential elections, becoming a central figure in the events that shaped the world during that time. His New Deal program was a direct response to the Great Depression. Now an amendment limits the number of terms that the executive branch can serve.
富兰克林·罗斯福从1933年3月至1945年4月任职。他作为第32任总统赢得了创纪录的四次总统选举,成为当时塑造世界的事件中的核心人物。他的新政计划是对大萧条的直接回应。现在一项修正案限制了行政部门的任期。

8. Democratic governments follow the “a chicken in every pot” system.
民主政府遵循“一锅一鸡”的制度。
Democracy does not require the same level of accountability if it is established in representative form. The goal of a politician is to receive the most votes. Once that person gets into office, there are fewer controls in place to recall that person if they do not accurately represent what their community wants. The only method to stop this in some countries is to vote in a different person during the next election.
民主如果以代表形式建立,就不需要同等程度的问责制。政治家的目标是获得最多的选票。一旦那个人上任,如果他们不能准确地代表他们社区想要的东西,那么召回那个人的控制措施就会减少。在一些国家,阻止这种情况的唯一方法是在下次选举中选一个不同的人。
Empty promises are common in direct democracies as well. When there is an incentive to offer everything without the requirement to fulfill your word, then you’ll see more lies than truth in the daily conversations about governing that occur.
空洞的承诺在直接民主国家也很常见。当有动力去提供一切而不需要履行你的诺言时,你会在日常关于治理的对话中看到更多的谎言而不是真相。

9. Gridlock occurs frequently in democratic structures.
民主结构中经常出现僵局。
There is no incentive for people to work together when another election can change the outcome in the future. The United States encountered this disadvantage when a Supreme Court opening occurred during the final year of President Obama’s term in office. Republicans in Congress refused to even hold hearings with his nominee because of the upcoming election, which President Trump eventually won.
当另一次选举可能改变未来的结果时,人们没有动力一起工作。当最高法院在奥巴马总统任期的最后一年开庭时,美国遇到了这个不利条件。国会的共和党人甚至拒绝与他的提名人举行听证会,因为即将到来的选举,特朗普总统最终赢得了选举。
When there is no incentive to work together, then partisan politics become the conversation of government. It is especially bad in two-party systems, but this disadvantage is present in all democracies as well.
当没有共同努力的动力时,党派政治就成了政府的话题。这在两党制下尤其糟糕,但这种劣势也存在于所有民主国家。

10. It can require individual voters to accept an entire mandate for a single issue.
它可能要求单个选民接受单一问题的全部授权。
Conservatives in the United States would argue that it is challenging to vote for the average Democrat because of their views on abortion. Liberals would make the same point when discussing LGBTQIA+ rights. Unless there is a direct democracy structure in place, voters must accept an entire manifesto to vote on the issues which are critical to their needs. Instead of having a candidate who truly represents them, they must pick the platform which is the closest to their stance.
美国保守派会辩称,由于他们对堕胎的看法,投票给普通民主党人是很有挑战性的。自由主义者在讨论LGBTQIA+权利时也会提出同样的观点。除非有一个直接的民主结构,否则选民必须接受一份完整的宣言,就对他们的需求至关重要的问题进行投票。他们必须选择最接近自己立场的政纲,而不是有一个真正代表他们的候选人。

Verdict on the Advantages and Disadvantages of Democracy
对民主利弊的判断
“The right to vote is a consequence, not a primary cause, of a free social system,” said Ayn Rand, “and its value depends on the constitutional structure implementing and strictly delimiting the voters’ power; unlimited majority rule is an instance of the principle of tyranny.”
“投票权是自由社会制度的结果,而不是主要原因,”安·兰德说,“它的价值取决于实施和严格界定选民权力的宪法结构;无限多数规则是暴政原则的一个例子。”
That is the danger of democracy. When the majority can pull the strings of society without there being legislation in place to protect the rights of the minority, then it creates a severe risk of oppression. We must remember that some classes of people in the U.S. have only had the right to vote for less than a century – including women.
这是民主的危险。当大多数人可以在没有立法保护少数人权利的情况下拉动社会的时候,就会造成严重的压迫风险。我们必须记住,美国某些阶层的人只有不到一个世纪的投票权——包括女性。
The advantages and disadvantages of democracy are essential to review because any governing structure can be abused under the right set of circumstances. We must ensure that enough checks and balances exist in this system to protect everyone instead of an elite class that can control everything. If power moves away from the people to only a privileged few, then it is only a handful of steps away from a dictatorship.
民主的利与弊是至关重要的,因为任何治理结构都可能在正确的环境下被滥用。我们必须确保在这个体系中存在足够的制衡机制来保护每个人,而不是一个可以控制一切的精英阶层。如果权力从人民手中转移到少数特权阶层,那么它离独裁政权只有几步之遥。

原文:https://futureofworking.com/11-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-democracy/

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