特朗普一直试图减少美中贸易逆差 ，并让中国削减国家补贴。特朗普政府还在解决长期存在的问题，例如 为希望在中国开展业务的美国公司强制转让技术。
由于美国消费者坚持持有这项法案，因此像约翰霍格这样的小企业主陷入困境。Hoge是Sea Eagle Boats的共同所有者，SeaEagle Boats是一家位于纽约长岛的家族企业，设计和销售硬塑料，充气艇和皮划艇。大多数都是在中国建造的。
然后，至少从美国的角度来看，贸易等式的另一面是：企业试图出口到中国。当特朗普政府对中国进口产品征收关税时，北京做了所有国家在贸易战中所做的事情 – 他们以自己的关税进行报复，特别针对美国农民。
许多贸易专家表示，如果美国和中国达成框架协议，那将不是特朗普承诺的 “史诗般的”贸易协议。尽管总统说，经济学家大卫温斯坦说贸易战实际上是“ 不容易赢。“
当一个国家（美国）几乎与它所经营的每个国家的贸易损失数十亿美元时，贸易战很好，而且很容易获胜。例如，当我们与某个国家相比减少1000亿美元并且他们变得可爱时，不再进行交易 – 我们赢得了大奖。这很简单！
Just last week, it looked like Washington and Beijing were close to a deal. But one minute after the stroke of
midnight early Friday, the Trump administration raised tariff rates from 10% to 25% on $200 billion worth of
Chinese imports. The president said, via tweet, “Tariffs will make our country much stronger, not weaker.”
Tariffs will make our Country MUCH STRONGER, not weaker. Just sit back and watch! In the meantime, China
should not renegotiate deals with the U.S. at the last minute. This is not the Obama Administration, or the
Administration of Sleepy Joe, who let China get away with “murder!”
— Donald J. Trump (@realDonaldTrump) May 10, 2019
Trade negotiations fell apart when China called for substantial changes to the draft agreement.
“We were getting very close to a deal, then they started to renegotiate the deal. We can’t have that,” Trump
Beijing rejects the president’s assertion.
Trump has been trying to decrease the US-China trade deficit and also get China to cut back on state subsidies. The
Trump administration is also tackling long-standing issues, like the forced transfer of technology for American
companies that want to do business in China.
The president also repeated a claim Thursday, one he often makes, about who is paying these increased import
taxes: “Paid for mostly by China, by the way, not by us. A lot of people try and steer it in a different direction. It’s
really paid, ultimately, it’s paid for largely by China.”
The latest academic research disputes that.
“What we found is that the tariffs are passed on completely to US consumers.”
David Weinstein, economist at Columbia University
“What we found is that the tariffs are passed on completely to US consumers,” said economist David Weinstein at
He and other economists found that when the initial 10% tax was added to Chinese-imported roof tiles, golf bags,
soap, baseball gloves or thousands of other items … American consumers ended up paying for it.
Related: Who’s paying for Trump’s tariffs? China, or American shoppers?
Chinese firms had a decision to make: try to preserve market share and lower prices on exports, effectively
absorbing the costs of the US tariffs, or pass along the costs of import duties to US buyers of Chinese-made
With American consumers stuck holding the bill, it’s left small-business owners like John Hoge in a bind. Hoge is a
co-owner of Sea Eagle Boats, a family-run business on Long Island, New York, that designs and sells hard plastic,
inflatable boats and kayaks. Most are built in China.
When Hoge’s imports from China were hit with the 10% tariff at the border, he raised his prices. And sales
dropped. Hoge said tariffs “seem to be affecting” business, but also that it’s been a cold, wet spring, which
could be impacting matters. Still, he said that a 25% tariff will be “terrible.”
“We will lose a lot of profit, and we will have to cut costs,” said Hoge. “I think what’s going to happen is that
the effect on the consumer will result in a shift of priorities, that if the necessities of daily life get 25% more
expensive, then there will be less of a tendency to put money into recreational items like the boats we’re selling.”
Worst case: Hoge said he might have to layoff some of his 28 employees.
Then, there’s the other side of the trade equation, from the American perspective at least: businesses trying to
export to China. When the Trump administration put tariffs on Chinese imports, Beijing did what all nations do in a
trade war — they retaliated with tariffs of their own, particularly aimed at US farmers.
Soybean farmers like Earl Williams in Cherry Valley, Illinois, the nation’s largest soy-producing state, were effectively
shut out of China, their largest export market. With increased supply and less demand, the price of soybeans
“I think most grain producers are saying there’s no profit,” said Williams. “How bad are the losses going to be at
Williams said he’s being hit with a double whammy. He can’t export his soybeans to China and import tariffs on
steel are adding to his costs as a consumer. “We use a lot of machinery, grain bins, buildings that use steel
coatings. Those are a direct hit to my pocketbook.”
Williams is frustrated with the president and said tariffs applied unilaterally on China are the wrong way to settle
“You never win … You lose markets that took a lifetime to develop. And there aren’t that many options to
replace a market such as the Chinese demand for our soybeans.”
Earl Williams, soybean farmer
“You never win,” said Williams. “You lose markets that took a lifetime to develop. And there aren’t that many
options to replace a market such as the Chinese demand for our soybeans.”
There is one sliver of good news for people and businesses being impacted by the US-China trade war: The new
tariff hike doesn’t apply to Chinese imports that are already in transit and out on container ships.
American companies also pay the duties at the US port of entry, and that buys people like boat seller John Hoge a
little bit of time.
“We don’t have any orders shipping in the next few days, and it takes about a month to get over, so it will start
to bite in about six to eight weeks,” Hoge said. “But I’m confident that there will be a deal before that.”
On the whole, Hoge worries that we’ve forgotten that trade is “fundamentally an act of cooperation and
fundamentally mutually beneficial … Whatever things that need to be fixed about the system, we shouldn’t tear
down the entire system to tweak a few things around the edges.”
Many trade experts say that if the US and China can reach a framework agreement, it won’t be the “epic” trade
deal that Trump is promising. And despite what the president says, economist David Weinstein said trade wars are
in fact, “not easy to win.”
When a country (USA) is losing many billions of dollars on trade with virtually every country it does business with,
trade wars are good, and easy to win. Example, when we are down $100 billion with a certain country and they get
cute, don’t trade anymore-we win big. It’s easy!
— Donald J. Trump (@realDonaldTrump) March 2, 2018
“These are very complicated negotiations. And for China to reorganize its intellectual property regime is a very
complicated undertaking, even if they have the best of intentions. US law is complicated, Chinese law complicated,
” Weinstein said.
Also, China doesn’t want to appear weak, to have buckled under US pressure.
“And so, they have their hackles up, we have our hackles up, and politically these things get very, very entrenched,
” said Weinstein.
Trump is already threatening to put fresh tariffs on another $325 billion in Chinese imports. If that were to happen,
virtually everything the US imports from China would be subject to a 25% import tax. For its part, China is
threatening with further countermeasures of its own.